Classic Leopard Geckos (Eublepharis macularius)
* Various color morphs produced here at The Serpentarium! *
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The Leopard Gecko (Eublepharis macularius) is a nocturnal ground-dwelling gecko naturally found in the deserts of southern Central Asia, from the southern parts of Afghanistan, throughout Pakistan, to the northwestern parts of India. Unlike most geckos, leopard geckos possess eyelids. It has become a well-established and popular pet in captivity but should only be purchased by an owner with the proper enclosure and equipment.
The native habitat of the leopard gecko is the rocky, dry grassland and desert regions of south-Asian Afghanistan, Pakistan, north-west India, and parts of Iran. Winter temperatures in these areas can be quite low, below 10 Â°C (50 Â°F), forcing the animals underground into semi-hibernation, called brumation, living on fat reserves. As nocturnal creatures, they spend the day hidden under rocks or in burrows to escape the daytime heat and emerge at dusk to feed by hunting insects. These Geckos are solitary, and do not usually live with other animals.
These geckos are insectivores that feed on insects, worms, and spiders. In captivity most individuals will prefer hunting food for themselves. The majority of captive Leopard geckos will also refuse to eat dead prey. Crickets are the best food source to give them as they can hunt them in their enclosure the way they would in their natural environment. When food is scarce in the desert, they can rely on their ability to store excess fat in their tails. Sufficient calcium and vitamin D3 is also very important for their diet: How they obtain it in the wild is still unknown, although they likely receive this from their varied prey (moths, spiders and other insects). In captivity, it is near impossible to completely duplicate the diet they will have in the wild, so the most nutritious insects known are offered, usually dusted with a fine calcium powder with added vitamin D3. Also, their keen sense of smell and sight allow them to search for food in the wild, they will stalk their prey, just like an actual leopard will, and then strike when they are satisfied it is an edible prey item.
Characteristics / Traits
Leopard geckos are typically small in size. Hatchlings tend to be 6.5 to 8.4 cm (2.6 to 3.3 inches) in length and weighing about 3 grams while the adult geckos are about 20.5 to 27.5 cm (8.1 to 10.9 inches) in length and weigh about 45 to 65 grams.
Those found in the wild typically have a darker, dull, and drab coloration than those kept in captivity as pets. Those in captivity generally have an assortment of skin colors and patterns. The skin of a leopard gecko is very durable, which provides protection from the rough sand and rocky terrain of their dry environment. Their dorsal side is covered with small bumps, which gives a rough texture and appearance while their ventral side is thin, transparent, and smooth. Like all reptiles, leopard geckos shed their skin. In the few days before the shedding, the skin will turn color to a translucent whitish gray. Adults shed an average of once a month, while juveniles will sometimes shed twice as much. The gecko will eat its old skin after shedding, revealing a brighter colored one. Eating the shed skin is a means for obtaining protein and vitamins for growth.
Leopard geckos are ectothermic. They absorb warmth and energy during the day as they are sleeping, so they can hunt and digest food at night. In addition, they have short legs, which enable them to be quick and agile while their small nails allow them to climb twigs and rocks. Leopard geckos have openings on either side of their head as ears. A tympanic membrane covers and protects it. They use their ears to locate their prey. Healthy leopard geckos have thick, fleshy tails while a thin tail is an indication that the gecko is not healthy and may be lacking nutrition. Although, when in captivity, the tail can be fattened by the feeding of Wax Worms (The Wax Moth Larvae), but these worms are typically too fatty for the Gecko to get the nutritional value it needs. They can also be fed 'pinkys', a one day old mouse to fatten up the tail, but again, these are very low in nutritional value. Their thick tails can regenerate when lost. However, the regenerated tails appear stumpy and never has the same appearance as the original tail.
Leopard geckos have predators, such as snakes, frogs, or foxes. Their keen sense of hearing and sight help them escape from them during the night. Along with their exceptional sight and hearing abilities, their skin helps camouflage themselves from their predators. Their sense of taste and smell also helps them with survival. The shedding of their skin also removes any scent markers left behind for potential predators to discover. When they feel threatened, startled, or scared, leopard geckos hiss to ward off predators. Also, they stay in underground holes and burrows during the daytime, not only avoid the heat, but to also avoid the risk of getting eaten.
Leopard geckos also have the ability to voluntarily detach their tails if it is attacked, grabbed by the tail, bitten during copulation, or nipped by another during feeding. This is called caudal autotomy. Its tail holds a fraction of its weight and when it is lost the speed of the gecko is quicker. Fractures in the tailbone allow the tail to separate easily and rapid vasoconstriction allows the gecko to have minimal blood loss. This detaching of the tail does not harm the gecko in any way. It will regenerate its tail immediately because it is needed for survival. A lost tail may cause sickness to the gecko and in some cases kill it, but this is very rare. Regenerated tails often retain similar colors to the original tail [though there will most likely be a wide variance from the vibrancy and patterns of the original], however they are often smooth and lack the rigid qualities and length of a normal tail. The tail will also be shorter and often fatter than the previous tail.
Sexual dimorphism is defined as a phenotypic difference between males and females of a species. It can be commonly found in animals, such as the leopard gecko and other reptiles. It exists in adult males and females, but can be difficult to determine in young geckos. The underside of a gecko truly determines the sex of the gecko. Males have pre-anal pores and hemipenal bulges while females have less and smaller pores and do not have external bulges.
Males can determine the sex of other leopard geckos by smelling pheromones on their skin. Males respond to males with aggressive behavior while they demonstrate courtship behavior towards females. Towards other males, the male would raise itself up from the ground, extend his limbs, and arch his back with the swelling of the tongue in aggression. He will then make short dashes and quick, vigorous bites, which frequently lacerate the skin and sometimes severely injure his opponent. Males behave the same way towards females while they are shedding their skin. Before and after the shedding of the skin, the males still express courtship behavior towards the females.
They are also known to have temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). Research shows that more females can be produced in predominantly cool temperatures (about 26â€“30 Â°C (79â€“86 Â°F)) and very warm temperatures (about 34â€“35 Â°C (93â€“95 Â°F)). It was recorded that males can be produced at the intermediate temperatures (about 31â€“33 Â°C (88â€“91 Â°F)). Females born in the higher temperatures differed from those who were born in the lower temperatures hormonally and behaviorally. Those born in the warmer temperatures expressed more aggressive behavior. These are known as "hot females" and are often determined to be infertile, that is unable to reproduce.
Sexual maturity occurs between eight to nine months of age. Leopard geckos will breed as single pairs or in a group consisting of one male and several females. Females may need to interact with a male and assess him before she chooses him as her mate. During breeding, the male will tap his tail, which tells the female he is ready to mate. He will chase her and when she is caught, he will mount on her for mating. The male will continually bite the top of her head. At this time, her tail may become detached. Both these mechanisms are normal. Though a "dropped" or "detached" tail will grow back, its regenerated form may be slightly malformed and will most likely look very different from the original. Regenerated tails are often smooth and short, with a bulb-like appearance. (See image in the bottom left of the "Characteristics" section.) Tail dropping is highly discouraged.
Leopard geckos will breed typically from January to August or September. Females can store sperm over the course of their breeding season, so they can produce up to 3 clutches from one or two copulations, therefore, the male is not needed for reproductive success after the first or second copulation. Once the female is pregnant, she will need an abundance of calcium for health and to ensure that the eggs calcify properly. She can lay about 6 to 8 clutches, which consists of two eggs in each clutch. They will normally lay two eggs approximately 21 to 28 days after mating. After 45 to 60 days, droplets of moisture will appear on the shell and the shell will begin to shrink and partially collapse. These are indications that the eggs will hatch. Baby leopard geckos will have an â€œegg tooth,â€ a calcareous tip at the end of its snout to help break their egg shell. Their â€œegg toothâ€ will fall off within one to two days. In addition to this, their skin will shed within 24 hours of hatching.The leopard gecko hatchling will not be able to eat until after the first shedding.
There are several common diseases that leopard geckos may experience.
Â Â Â * Gastoenteritis or Diarrhea is a disease that is caused by a bacterial infection caused by unsanitary conditions. An indication of the disease is that the leopard gecko has watery and/or bloody stool. Normally the stool is dry and well-formed with a small white portion. It is contagious and can be spread easily. Other symptoms of the disease include weight loss, a skinny tail, undigested cricket masses. If it is not treated, the gecko will stop eating, become dehydrated and scrawny, and possibly die.
Â Â Â * Coccidia causes gastrointestinal problems when protozoan parasites infect the lining of the intestine. It is contagious and can infect other leopard geckos that are in close proximity to the infected one. If untreated, the leopard gecko will stop eating and become sluggish, dehydrated, and anorexic.
Â Â Â * Metabolic Bone Disease or MBD is a nutritional deficiency due to the lack of calcium and vitamin D3 in their diet. Calcium and vitamin D3 are critical for proper bone formation during development and for proper calcification of eggs for a pregnant female. Those with MBD will experience symptoms such as weakness, bones becoming spongy, deformities in their limbs and spine, twitching or tremors, and a lack of appetite. Recovering from this disease can be very difficult.
Â Â Â * Anorexia [disambiguation needed] in leopard geckos can be caused by stress, unsanitary conditions, nutritional diseases, or other diseases. These anorexic leopard geckos will appear thin, develop an extremely thin tail, become weak and sluggish, will stop eating, and usually die if untreated.
Â Â Â * Dysecdysis is a condition in which a leopard gecko has problems shedding its skin due to poor nutrition, lack of humidity and moisture, and poor care. Incomplete shed skin will appear as dry patches on various areas of the body such as the head, eyes, limbs, and tail. Leopard geckos with this condition may develop eye problems, have difficulty in walking, and noticeable constricting bands of old skin around their limbs. If the condition is not treated, it could lead to infection.
Â Â Â * Dystocia or â€œegg-bindingâ€ is when a pregnant female cannot expel her eggs. This could occur due to the eggs being too large to be passed through the oviduct and cloaca, nutritional factors, an ill or weak female, and other unknown problems. With this condition, the female will usually stop eating and become weak and lethargic.
Â Â Â * Stomatitis or Mouthrot is when a leopard gecko has swelling around its mouth area with pus or a cheesy-like substance.
Â Â Â * Pneumonia is a severe respiratory tract infection caused by bacteria in the lungs. This can occur to leopard geckos if their environment is too cool in temperature and humid thus causing their immune system to become compromised. Those with pneumonia will show mucus bubbles in their nostril area and have difficulty in breathing. The problem usually gets resolved when the temperature rises to about 82Â°-85Â°F for them.
Â Â Â * Sand Impactions and Prolapse can occasionally occur. This can be caused if a leopard gecko ingests sand or other substrates they live on.
Â Â Â * Cryptosporidiosis, also known as 'crypto', is a highly infectious disease that is often fatal to leopard geckos if it is not detected and treated in its early stages. Although a definitive diagnosis can be difficult to make, the disease can be recognized by regurgitated food in the enclosure, liquid feces, and consequently a very thin body and tail (also called "pencil tail"). One should never buy a gecko displaying these symptoms. Even if the symptoms are not caused by crypto there is probably another problem with the gecko's health. Although the success rate is still low there are experimental treatments for crypto that can be successful, but involve a painstaking process. Because of this and the difficulty to diagnose the disease, a lot of suspected infected pet leopard geckos get humanely euthanized.
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